Risk of cardiovascular events associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in patients with diabetes with and without chronic kidney disease: A nationwide cohort study.
Cardiovascular events associated with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) have raised significant safety concerns. This study assessed the association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without chronic kidney disease (CKD).
A retrospective cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database.
SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS
Our study included patients with type 2 diabetes who received OHAs between March 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012. All eligible subjects were classified into CKD and non-CKD cohorts and further categorized as the DPP-4i and non-DPP-4i users in each cohort.
The DPP-4i and non-DPP-4i groups were matched 1:1 by propensity score to attenuate potential selection bias. Propensity score was estimated by logistic regression, using demographics, co-medications, comorbidities. and adapted diabetic complication severity index at baseline.
Outcomes of interest included a composite endpoint of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death (major adverse cardiac events [MACE]), and hospitalization for heart failure (hHF). COX proportional hazard models were applied to examine the association between DPP-4i and outcomes of interest.
We identified 37,641 and 87,604 patients with type 2 diabetes with and without CKD, respectively. After propensity score matching, 8,213 pairs of CKD patients and 12,313 pairs of non-CKD patients were included for analysis. In the CKD cohort, DPP-4i were associated with a 25% increased risk of hHF (DPP-4i vs. non-DPP-4i incidence/1,000 person-years: 15.0 vs. 9.9, HR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.01-1.54, p = 0.037) but not with the risk of MACE (HR = 0.89, p = 0.144). In the non-CKD cohort, DPP-4i were associated with a lower risk of MACE (DPP-4i vs. non-DPP-4i incidence/1,000 person-years: 9.8 vs. 12.6 HR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.87, p = 0.0007), but not the risk of hHF (HR = 1.09, p = 0.631).
DPP-4i were found to be associated with decreased risk of MACE in the non-CKD cohort in our study. However, DPP-4i were associated with increased risk of hHF in the CKD cohort. DPP-4i in the CKD cohort should be used cautiously.