Obstructive Sleep Apnea, a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular and Microvascular Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Findings From a Population-Based Cohort Study
Causes and Prevention, Diagnosis; Prognosis
Objective: To determine the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), microvascular complications, and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes who subsequently develop obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared with patients with type 2 diabetes without a diagnosis of OSA.
Research design and methods: This age-, sex-, BMI-, and diabetes duration-matched cohort study used data from a U.K. primary care database from 1 January 2005 to 17 January 2018. Participants aged ≥16 years with type 2 diabetes were included. Exposed participants were those who developed OSA after their diabetes diagnosis; unexposed participants were those without diagnosed OSA. Outcomes were composite CVD (ischemic heart disease [IHD], stroke/transient ischemic attack [TIA], heart failure [HF]), peripheral vascular disease (PVD), atrial fibrillation (AF), peripheral neuropathy (PN), diabetes-related foot disease (DFD), referable retinopathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and all-cause mortality. The same outcomes were explored in patients with preexisting OSA before a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes versus diabetes without diagnosed OSA.
Results: A total of 3,667 exposed participants and 10,450 matched control participants were included. Adjusted hazard ratios for the outcomes were as follows: composite CVD 1.54 (95% CI 1.32, 1.79), IHD 1.55 (1.26, 1.90), HF 1.67 (1.35, 2.06), stroke/TIA 1.57 (1.27, 1.94), PVD 1.10 (0.91, 1.32), AF 1.53 (1.28, 1.83), PN 1.32 (1.14, 1.51), DFD 1.42 (1.16, 1.74), referable retinopathy 0.99 (0.82, 1.21), CKD (stage 3-5) 1.18 (1.02, 1.36), albuminuria 1.11 (1.01, 1.22), and all-cause mortality 1.24 (1.10, 1.40). In the prevalent OSA cohort, the results were similar, but some associations were not observed.
Conclusions: Patients with type 2 diabetes who develop OSA are at increased risk of CVD, AF, PN, DFD, CKD, and all-cause mortality compared with patients without diagnosed OSA. Patients with type 2 diabetes who develop OSA are a high-risk population, and strategies to detect OSA and prevent cardiovascular and microvascular complications should be implemented.
Nicola J Adderley, Anuradhaa Subramanian, Konstantinos Toulis, Krishna Gokhale, Thomas Taverner, Wasim Hanif, Shamil Haroon, G Neil Thomas, Christopher Sainsbury, Abd A Tahrani, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar