Acute Kidney Injury and Risk of Heart Failure and Atherosclerotic Events.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
AKI in the hospital is common and is associated with excess mortality. We examined whether AKI is also independently associated with a higher risk of different cardiovascular events in the first year after discharge.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS
We conducted a retrospective analysis of a cohort between 2006 and 2013 with follow-up through 2014, within Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We identified all adults admitted to 21 hospitals who had one or more in-hospital serum creatinine test result and survived to discharge. Occurrence of AKI was on the basis of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes diagnostic criteria. Potential confounders were identified from comprehensive inpatient and outpatient, laboratory, and pharmacy electronic medical records. During the 365 days after discharge, we ascertained occurrence of heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, peripheral artery disease, and ischemic stroke events from electronic medical records.
Among a matched cohort of 146,941 hospitalized adults, 31,245 experienced AKI. At 365 days postdischarge, AKI was independently associated with higher rates of the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure and atherosclerotic events (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.13 to 1.25) even after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, preadmission eGFR and proteinuria, heart failure and sepsis complicating the hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of stay, and predicted in-hospital mortality. This was driven by an excess risk of subsequent heart failure (aHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.33 to 1.56), whereas there was no significant association with follow-up atherosclerotic events (aHR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.12).
AKI is independently associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events, especially heart failure, after hospital discharge.
Alan S Go,
Thida C Tan,
Juan D Ordonez,
Kathleen D Liu,
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN