Comparative effectiveness of novel oral anticoagulants in UK patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study.

Loo, Simone Y Coulombe, Janie Dell'Aniello, Sophie Brophy, James M Suissa, Samy Renoux, Christel

REVIEW


02 May 2018

This work is extremely important from a clinical perspective as NOACs are more acceptable to patients and do not require the same extensive monitoring as Vitamin K antagonists thereby benefiting both patients and health care professionals.


RELEVANCE 2
INNOVATIVENESS 3
APPLICABILITY 5
OVERALL 3

PAPER DETAILS


TITLE

Comparative effectiveness of novel oral anticoagulants in UK patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), particularly those with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

DESIGN
Population-based matched cohort study.

SETTING
Over 670 primary care practices in the UK, contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

PARTICIPANTS
Up to 6818 adult patients newly treated with NOACs between 2011 and 2016, matched 1:1 to new users of VKAs on age, sex and high-dimensional propensity score.

INTERVENTIONS
Current exposure to NOACs compared with current exposure to VKAs.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
HRs of ischaemic stroke and systemic embolism (SE), major bleeding, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, intracranial bleeding, myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality.

RESULTS
In as-treated analyses, the rates of ischaemic stroke/SE were similar between NOACs and VKAs (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.42), as were the rates of major bleeding (HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.56 to 1.33). NOACs also significantly increased the risk of GI bleeding (HR 1.78; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.48). In patients with NVAF and CKD, NOACs and VKAs remained comparable with respect to the risk of ischaemic stroke/SE (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.40 to 1.58) and major bleeding (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.47 to 1.62), with no difference in the risk of GI bleeding (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.55). Similar results were obtained in on-treatment analyses using a time-dependent exposure definition.

CONCLUSIONS
Our results suggest that in the UK primary care, NOACs are overall effective and safe alternatives to VKAs, among patients with NVAF altogether, as well as in patients with NVAF and CKD.



AUTHOR(S)

Loo, Simone Y Coulombe, Janie Dell'Aniello, Sophie Brophy, James M Suissa, Samy Renoux, Christel

JOURNAL

BMJ open

PLACE

England