Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.
To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) Study.
Population-based, cross-sectional study.
Persons of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicity aged 40+ years, living in Singapore.
Diabetes was defined as nonfasting plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >6.5%, self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, or the use of glucose-lowering medication. Retinal photographs, were graded for the presence and severity of DR using the modified Airlie House classification system.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema (DME), vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR), defined as the presence of severe nonproliferative or proliferative DR, or clinically significant macular edema (CSME).
Of the 10 033 subjects, 2877 (28.7%) had diabetes and gradable photographs for analysis. The overall age-standardized prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 28.2% (25.9-30.6) for any DR, 7.6% (6.5-9.0) for DME, and 7.7% (6.6-9.0) for VTDR. Indians had a higher prevalence of any DR (30.7% vs. 26.2% in Chinese and 25.5% in Malays, P = 0.012); a similar trend was noted for any DME (P = 0.001) and CSME (P = 0.032). Independent risk factors for any DR were Indian ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.83, vs. Chinese), diabetes duration (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.11, per year), HbA1c (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.32, per %), serum glucose (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.06, per mmol/l), and systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.19, per 10 mmHg). Diastolic blood pressure (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.84, per 10 mmHg increase), total cholesterol (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95, per mmol/l increase), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.92, per mmol/l increase) were associated with lower odds of any DR. Risk factors were largely similar across the 3 ethnic groups.
Indian Singaporeans have a higher prevalence of DR and DME compared with Chinese and Malays. Major risk factors for DR in this study were similar across the 3 ethnic groups. Addressing these risk factors may reduce the impact of DR in Asia, regardless of ethnicity.
Tan, Gavin S
Tham, Yih Chung
Wang, Jie Jin
Lamoureux, Ecosse L
Wong, Tien Y